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Department of Plant Sciences



Prior to working at Cambridge, John Carr worked at the University of Utah Medical School in Salt Lake City and The Waksman Institute of Microbiology Rutgers University in New Jersey with Dan Klessig and at Cornell University's Department of Plant Pathology in Ithaca New York with Milton Zaitlin. He studied at the University of Liverpool with Mike Wilson and at Rothamsted Research with John Antoniw and Ray White.


Research News

PhD Project Information

Please follow this link for more information on PhD Projects:

These areas can form the basis for applications from overseas students or from EU/domestic students (including students in the BBSRC DTP). Potential students are advised to e-mail John for advice before putting in formal applications.



'Microbiology Today' the newsletter of the Microbiology Society has a feature on the Carr Group's work in sub-Saharan Africa.

Current Opinion in Virology issue on Engineering for Viral Resistance edited by John P Carr and Peter Palukaitis in memoriam of Professor Milton Zaitlin

MPMI Focus Issue on Noncoding RNA  edited by John P Carr and Steven A. Whitham in memoriam of Professor Biao Ding

'Cabbages and cows' news item

Royal Horticultural Society 

Survey of viruses affecting Solanum species in UK gardens

Plant-Virus-Insect Interactions


Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions Focus Issue on Translational Research:


Cambridge in Africa

Attack of the aphids

Could virus infection of plants affect plant-pollinator interactions?



Key publications: 

Research Papers 

Tungadi, T., Watt, L.G., Groen, S.C., Murphy, A.M., Du, Z., Pate, A.E., Westwood, J.H., Fennell, T.G., Powell, G., and Carr, J.P. (2021). Infection of arabidopsis by cucumber mosaic virus triggers jasmonate-dependent resistance to aphids that relies partly on the pattern-triggered immunity factor BAK1. Molecular Plant Pathology LINK

Adenka, K.D., Fening, K.O., Afreh-Nuamah. K., Wamonje, F.O., and Carr, J.P. (2021). Susceptibility of five cabbage varieties to attack by aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the Accra plains of Ghana. Phytoparasitica 49:33–47. LINK

Watt, L.G., Crawshaw, S., Rhee, S.J., Murphy, A.M., Canto, T., and Carr, J.P. (2020) The cucumber mosaic virus 1a protein regulates interactions between the 2b protein and ARGONAUTE 1 while maintaining the silencing suppressor activity of the 2b protein. PLoS Pathogens 16(12): e1009125. View Online

Wamonje, F.O., Tungadi, T.D., Murphy, A.M., Pate, A.E., Woodcock, C., Caulfield, J.C., Mutuku, J.M., Cunniffe, N.J., Bruce, T.J.A., Gilligan, C.A., Pickett, J.A., and Carr, J.P. (2020) Three aphid-transmitted viruses encourage vector migration from infected common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants through a combination of volatile and surface cues. Frontiers in Plant Science 11:613772. Link

Du, K., Jiang, T., Chen, H., Murphy, A.M., Carr, J.P., Du, Z., Li, X., Fan, Z. and Zhou, T. (2020) Viral perturbation of alternative splicing of a host transcript benefits infection. Plant Physiology 184: 1514-153. View Online

Rhee, S.J., Watt, L.G., Cazar Bravo, A., Murphy, A.M. and Carr, J.P. (2020) Effects of the cucumber mosaic virus 2a protein on aphid-plant interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana. Molecular Plant Pathology 21:1248-1254 View online

Fening, K.OForchibe, E.E.Wamonje, F.O.Adama, I.Afreh-Nuamah, K., and Carr, J.P. (2020) First report and distribution of the Indian mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi pseudobrassicae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata) in Ghana. Journal of Economic Entomology 113: 1363–1372 View Online

Wamonje, F.O., Murphy, A.M., Tungadi, T.D., Mutuku, J.M., Pate, A.E., Donnelly, R., Gilligan, C.A., Woodcock, C.A., Caulfield, J., Pickett, J.A., Bruce, T.J.A. and Carr, J.P. (2020) Different plant viruses induce changes in feeding behaviour of specialist and generalist aphids on common bean that are likely to enhance virus transmission. Frontiers in Plant Sciences 10:1811. View Online

Poon, J.S.Y, Le Fevre, R.E., Carr, J.P., Hanke, D.E, and Murphy, A.M. (2020) Inositol-6-phosphate is a key factor underpinning PAMP-triggered immunity to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in Arabidopsis thaliana but is dispensable for establishment of systemic acquired resistance. Molecular Plant Pathology 21:376-387 View Online

Tungadi, T., Donnelly, R., Qing, L., Iqbal, J., Murphy, A.M., Pate, A.E., Cunniffe, N.J., and Carr, J.P. (2020). Cucumber mosaic virus 2b proteins inhibit virus-induced aphid resistance in tobacco. Molecular Plant Pathology 21: 250-257 View Online

Yuan, W., Jiang, T., Du, K., Chen, H., Cao, Y., Xie, J., Li, M., Carr, J.P., Wu, B., Fan, Z., and Zhou, T. (2019). Maize phenylalanine ammonia-lyases contribute to resistance to Sugarcane mosaic virus infection likely by positively regulating salicylic acid accumulation. Molecular Plant Pathology 20:1365-1378 View Online

Donnelly, R., Cunniffe, N.J., Carr, J.P., and Gilligan, C.A. (2019). Pathogenic modification of plants enhances long‐distance dispersal of non‐persistently transmitted viruses to new hosts. Ecology 100(7):e02725. View Online

Worrall, E.A., Bravo-Cazar, A., Nilon, A.T., Fletcher, S.J., Robinson, K.E., Carr, J.P. and Mitter, N. (2019). Exogenous application of RNAi-inducing double-stranded RNA inhibits aphid-mediated transmission of a plant virus. Frontiers in Plant Science 10:265. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00265 View Online

Mutuku, J.M., Wamonje, F.O., Mukeshimana, G., Njuguna, J., Wamalwa, M., Choi, S.K., Tungadi, T., Djikeng, A., Kelly, K., Entfellner, J.B.D., Ghimire, S.R., Mignouna, H.M., Carr, J.P., and Harvey, J.J.W. (2018). Metagenomic analysis of plant virus occurrence in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in central Kenya. Frontiers in Microbiology 9:2939. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02939. LINK

Wamonje FO, Michuki GN, Braidwood LA, Njuguna J, Mutuku JM, Djikeng A, Harvey JJW and Carr JP (2017) Viral metagenomics of aphids present in bean and maize plots on mixed-use farms in Kenya reveals the presence of three dicistroviruses including a novel Big Sioux River virus-like dicistrovirus. Virology Journal 14:188 LINK

Macaulay, K.M., Heath, G.A., Ciulli, A., Murphy, A.M., Abell, C., Carr, J.P. and Smith, A.G. (2017) The biochemical properties of the two Arabidopsis thaliana isochorismate synthases. Biochemical Journal 474:1579-1590   view online Cover image

Chen, H., Cao, Y., Li, Y., Xia, Z., Xie, J., Carr, J.P., Wu, B., Fan, Z., and Zhou, T. (2017) Identification of differentially regulated maize proteins conditioning Sugarcane mosaic virus systemic infection. New Phytologist 215:1156–1172. View Online

Tungadi,T., Groen S.C., Murphy, A.M., Pate, A.E., Iqbal, J., Bruce, T.J.A., Cunniffe, N.J., and Carr, J.P. (2017) Cucumber mosaic virus and its 2b protein alter emission of host volatile organic compounds but not aphid vector settling in tobacco. Virology Journal 14:91. View Online

Yoon, J.Y., Choi, G.S., Carr, J.P., and Choi, S.K. (2017) First report of Cucumber mosaic virus infecting Pimpinella brachycarpa in Korea. Plant Disease

Groen SC, Jiang S, Murphy AM, Cunniffe NJ, Westwood JH, Davey MP, et al. (2016) Virus Infection of Plants Alters Pollinator Preference: A Payback for Susceptible Hosts? PLoS Pathogens 12(8): e1005790. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005790 view online

Olspert, A., Carr, J.P., and Firth A.E. (2016). Mutational analysis of the Potyviridae transcriptional slippage site utilized for expression of the P3N-PIPO and P1N-PISPO proteins. Nucleic Acids Research 44:7618-7629. View online

Hunter, L.J.R., Brockington, S.F. Murphy, A.M., Pate, A.E., Gruden, K., MacFarlane, S.A., Palukaitis, P., and Carr, J.P. (2016). RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its relationship to other plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Scientific Reports 6: 23082 view online

Lee, W.S., Fu, S.F., Li, Z., Murphy, A.M., Dobson, E.A., Garland, L., Chaluvadi, S.R., Lewsey, M.G., Nelson, R.S., and Carr, J.P. (2016). Salicylic acid treatment and expression of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 transgene inhibits lethal symptoms and meristem invasion during tobacco mosaic virus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana. BMC Plant Biology 16:15. view online

Liao, Q., Tu, Y., Carr, J.P., and Du, Z. (2015). An improved cucumber mosaic virus-based vector for efficient decoying of plant microRNAs. Scientific Reports 5, 13178; doi: 10.1038/srep13178  view online

Olspert, A., Chung, B.-W., Atkins, J.F., Carr, J.P., and Firth, A.E. (2015). Transcriptional slippage in the positive-sense RNA virus family Potyviridae. EMBO Reports  View online

Also see K.A. White News and Views view online

Li, Z., Liang, W.S., and Carr, J.P. (2014). Effects of modifying alternative respiration on nitric oxide–induced virus resistance and PR1 protein accumulation. Journal of General Virology 95: 2075-2081. view online

Zhou, T., Murphy, A.M., Lewsey, M.G., Westwood, J.H., Zhang, H., González, I., Canto, T., and Carr, J.P. (2014). Domains of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b silencing suppressor protein affecting inhibition of salicylic acid-induced resistance and priming of salicylic acid accumulation during infection. Journal of General Virology 95: 1408-1413. view online

Du, Z., Chen, A., Chen, W., Liao, Q., Zhang, H., Bao,Y., Roossinck, M.J., and Carr, J.P. (2014). Nuclear-cytoplasmic partitioning of the Cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein determines the balance between its roles as a virulence determinant and RNA silencing suppressor. Journal of Virology  88:5228-5241 view online

Du, Z., Chen, A., Chen, W., Westwood, J.H., Baulcombe, D.C., Carr, J.P. (2014). Using a viral vector to reveal the role of miR159 in disease symptom induction by a severe strain of cucumber mosaic virus. Plant Physiology  164: 1378–1388 view online

Westwood, J.H., Lewsey, M.G., Murphy, A.M., Tungadi, T., Bates, A., Gilligan, C.A. and Carr, J.P. (2014) Interference with jasmonic acid- regulated gene expression is a general property of viral suppressors of RNA silencing but only partly explains virus-induced changes in plant-aphid interactions. Journal of General Virology  95: 733–739.  view online

Westwood, JH, Groen, SC, Du, Z, Tungadi, T, Lewsey, MG, Luang-In, V, Murphy, AM, Rossiter, J, Powell, G, Smith, AG, Carr, JP (2013). A trio of viral proteins tunes aphid-plant interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana.  PLoS ONE 8(12): e83066. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083066 view online

Xu A, Zhao Z, Chen W, Zhang H, Liao Q, Chen J, Carr JP, Du Z (2013) Self-interaction of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein plays a vital role in suppression of RNA silencing and induction of viral symptoms. Molecular Plant Pathology 14: 803-812 view online

Ling, R., Pate, A.E., Carr, J.P. and Firth A.E. (2013) An essential fifth coding ORF in the sobemoviruses. Virology 446: 397–408 view online Highlighted Article

Hunter LJR, Westwood JH, Heath G, Macaulay K, Smith AG, MacFarlane SA, Palukaitis P and Carr JP (2013) Regulation of RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase 1 and isochorismate synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis. PlosOne 8(6): e66530. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066530 view online

Westwood, J.H., McCann, L., Naish, M., Dixon, H., Murphy A.M., Stancombe, M.A., Bennett, M.H., Powell, G., Webb, A.A.R. and Carr, J.P. (2013). A viral RNA silencing suppressor interferes with abscisic acid-mediated signaling and induces drought tolerance. Molecular Plant Pathology 14: 158-170 view online Featured by Faculty of 1000

González, I., Rakitina, D., Semashko, M., Taliansky, M., Praveen, S., Palukaitis, P. Carr, J.P., Kalinina, N., and Canto, T. (2012). 'RNA binding is more critical to the suppression of silencing function of Cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein than nuclear localization.' RNA 18: 771-782 view online

Ziebell, H., Murphy, A.M., Groen, S.C., Tungadi, T., Westwood, J.H., Lewsey, M.G., Moulin, M., Kleczkowski, A., Smith, A.G., Stevens, M., Powell, G., and Carr, J.P. (2011). 'Cucumber mosaic virus and its 2b RNA silencing suppressor modify plant-aphid interactions in tobacco.' Scientific Reports 1: 187 view online

Lee, W.S, Fu, S.F, Verchot-Lubicz, J., and Carr, J.P. (2011). 'Genetic modification of alternative respiration in Nicotiana benthamiana affects basal and salicylic acid-induced resistance to potato virus X.' BMC Plant Biology 11: 41. view online

Harvey, J.J.W., Lewsey, M.G., Patel, K., Heimstädt, S., Westwood, J.H., Carr, J.P. and Baulcombe, D.C. (2011). 'An antiviral defence role of AGO2 in plants.' PLoS One 6(1): e14639 view online

Lewsey, M.G. Murphy, A.M., MacLean, D., Dalchau, N., Westwood, J.H., Macaulay, K., Bennett, M.H., Moulin, M., Hanke, D.E., Powell, G., Smith, A.G., and Carr, J.P. (2010). 'Disruption of two defensive signaling pathways by a viral RNA silencing suppressor.' Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 23: 835-845. view online MPMI Editor's Pick

González, I., Martínez, L., Rakinita, D.V., Lewsey, M.G., Atienzo, F.A., Llave, C., Kalinina, N.O., Carr, J.P., Palukaitis, P., and Canto, T. (2010). 'Cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein subcellular targets and interactions: Their significance to RNA silencing suppressor activity.' Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 23: 294-303. view online

Chivasa, S., Simon, W.J., Murphy, A.M., Carr, J.P., and Slabas, A.R. (2010). 'The effects of extracellular ATP on the tobacco proteome.' Proteomics 10: 235-244. view online

Lewsey, M.G. and Carr, J.P. (2009). 'Effects of DICER-like proteins 2, 3 and 4 on cucumber mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus infections in salicylic acid-treated plants.' Journal of General Virology 90: 3010-3014. view online

Chivasa, S., Hamilton, J.H., Murphy, A.M. Lindsey, K., Carr, J.P. and Slabas, A. (2009). 'Extracellular ATP: A novel regulator of pathogen defence in plants' Plant Journal 60: 436–448 view online

Ziebell, H. and Carr, J.P. (2009) 'The effects of dicer-like endoribonucleases 2 and 4 on infection of Arabidopsis thaliana by cucumber mosaic virus and a mutant virus lacking the 2b counter-defence protein gene.' Journal of General Virology 90: 2288 - 2292. view online

Lewsey, M., Surette, M., Robertson, F. C., Ziebell, H., Choi, S. H., Ryu, K. H., et al. (2009). The role of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein in viral movement and symptom induction. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 22: 642-654. view online

Murphy, A.M., Otto, B., Brearley, C.A., Carr, J.P. and Hanke, D.E. (2008). A role for inositol hexakisphosphate in the maintenance of basal resistance to plant pathogens.' Plant Journal 56: 638 - 652 view online

Silvestri, S.., Murphy, A.M., Buonaurio, R. and Carr, J.P. (2008). Allopurinol, an inhibitor of purine catabolism, enhances susceptibility of tobacco to tobacco mosaic virus. Virus Research 137: 257-260. view online

Ziebell, H., Payne, T., Berry, J.O., Walsh, J.A. & Carr, J.P. (2007). 'A cucumber mosaic virus mutant lacking the 2b counter-defence protein gene provides protection against wild-type strains.' Journal of General Virology 88: 2862-2871. view online

Lewsey, M., Robertson, F.C., Canto, T., Palukaitis, P. & Carr, J.P. (2007). 'Selective targeting of miRNA-regulated plant development by a viral counter-silencing protein.' Plant Journal 50: 240-252. view online Featured by Faculty of 1000

Handford, M.G. & Carr, J.P. (2007). 'A defect in carbohydrate metabolism ameliorates symptom severity in virus-infected Arabidopsis thaliana.' Journal of General Virology 88: 337-341. view online

Huang, W.E., Huang, L., Preston, G., Naylor, M., Carr, J.P., Li, Y., Singer, A.C., Whiteley, A.S. & Wang, H. (2006). 'Quantitative in situ assay of salicylic acid in tobacco leaves using a genetically modified biosensor strain of Acinetobacter sp. ADP1.' Plant Journal 46:1073-1083. view online

Mayers, C.N., Lee, K-.C., Moore, C.A., Wong, S-.K. & Carr, J.P. (2005). 'Salicylic acid-induced resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in squash and Arabidopsis thaliana: Contrasting mechanisms of induction and antiviral action.' Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 18: 428-434. view online

Murphy, A. M., Gilliland, A., York, C. J., Hyman, B., & Carr, J. P. (2004). 'High-level expression of alternative oxidase protein sequences enhances the spread of viral vectors in resistant and susceptible plants.' Journal of General Virology 85: 3777-3786. view online

Gilliland, A., Singh, D.P., Hayward, J.M., Moore, C.A., Murphy, A.M., York, C.J., Slator, J. & Carr, J.P. (2003). 'Genetic modification of alternative respiration has differential effects on antimycin A-induced versus salicylic acid-induced resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus.' Plant Physiology 132: 1518-1528. view online

Soards, A.J., Murphy, A.M., Palukaitis, P. & Carr, J.P. (2002). 'Virulence and differential local and systemic spread of Cucumber mosaic virus in tobacco are affected by the CMV 2b protein.' Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 15: 647-653. view online

Murphy, A.M. & Carr, J.P. (2002) 'Salicylic acid has cell-specific effects on Tobacco mosaic virus replication and cell-to-cell movement.' Plant Physiology 128: 552-563. view online

Wong, C.E., Carson, R.A.J. & Carr, J.P. (2002) 'Chemically-induced virus resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana is independent of pathogenesis-related protein expression and the NPR1 gene.' Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 15: 75-81. view online

Morris, K., A.-H. Mackerness, S., Page, T., John, C.F., Murphy, A.M., Carr, J.P. & Buchanan-Wollaston, V. (2000) 'Salicylic acid has a role in regulating gene expression during leaf senescence.' Plant Journal 23: 677-686. view online

Murphy, A.M., Holcombe, L.J. & Carr, J.P. (2000) 'Characteristics of the salicylic acid-induced delay in disease caused by a necrotrophic fungal pathogen in tobacco.' Physiological & Molecular Plant Pathology 57: 47-54. view online

Taylor, D.N. & Carr, J.P. (2000) 'The GCD10 subunit of yeast eIF-3 binds to the methyltransferase-like domain of the 126- and 183-kDa replicase proteins of tobacco mosaic virus in the yeast two-hybrid system.'  Journal of General Virology 81: 1557-1561. online

Mayers, C.N., Palukaitis, P. & Carr, J.P. (2000) 'Sub-cellular distribution analysis of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein.'  Journal of General Virology 81: 219-226. online

Chivasa, S., Berry, J.O, ap Rees, T. & Carr, J.P. (1999) 'Changes in gene expression during development and thermogenesis in Arum.'  Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 26: 391-399. online

Chivasa, S. & Carr, J.P. (1998) 'Cyanide restores N gene-mediated resistance to tobacco mosaic virus in transgenic tobacco expressing salicylic acid hydroxylase.' Plant Cell 10: 1489-1498. online

Naylor, M., Murphy, A.M., Berry, J.O. & Carr, J.P. (1998) 'Salicylic acid can induce resistance to plant virus movement.'  Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 11: 860-868. online

Surplus, S.L., Jordan, B.R., Murphy, A.M., Carr, J.P., Thomas, B, & A.-H.-Mackerness, S. (1998) 'Ultraviolet-B-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana: Role of salicylic acid and reactive oxygen species in the regulation of transcripts encoding photosynthetic and acidic pathogenesis-related proteins.' Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 685-694. online

Chivasa, S., Murphy, A.M, Naylor, M. & Carr, J.P. (1997) 'Salicylic acid interferes with tobacco mosaic virus replication via a novel, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive mechanism.' Plant Cell 9: 547-557. online

Carr, J.P., Gal-On, A., Palukaitis, P. and Zaitlin, M. (1994) 'Replicase-mediated resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in transgenic plants involves suppression of both virus replication in the inoculated leaves and long distance movement.' Virology 199: 439-447. online

Wang, J.-L., Turgeon, R., Carr, J.P. and Berry, J.O. (1993) 'Carbon sink-to-source transition is coordinated with establishment of cell-specific gene expression in a C4 plant.' Plant Cell 5:289-296. online

Carr, J.P., Marsh, L.E., Lomonossoff, G.P., Sekiya, M.E. and Zaitlin, M. (1992) 'Resistance to tobacco mosaic virus induced by the 54-kDa gene sequence requires expression of the 54-kDa protein'. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 5: 397-404. online

Carr, J.P. and Zaitlin, M. (1991) 'Resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing a non-structural gene sequence of tobacco mosaic virus is a consequence of markedly reduced virus replication.'  Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 4:579-585. online

Malamy, J., Carr, J.P., Klessig, D.F. and Raskin, I. (1990) 'Salicylic acid- A likely endogenous signal in the resistance response of tobacco to viral infection.' Science 250: 1002-1004. online

Cutt, J.R., Harpster, M.H., Dixon, D.C., Carr, J.P., Dunsmuir, P. and Klessig, D.F. (1989) 'Disease response to tobacco mosaic virus in transgenic tobacco plants that constitutively express the pathogenesis-related protein PR1b.' Virology 173:89-97. online

Carr, J.P., Beachy, R.N., and Klessig, D.F. (1989) 'Are the PR1 proteins of tobacco involved in genetically engineered resistance to TMV?' Virology 169:470-473. online

Cutt, J.R., Dixon, D.C., Carr, J.P., and Klessig, D.F. (1988) 'Isolation and nucleotide sequence of cDNA clones for the pathogenesis-related proteins PR1a, PR1b and PR1c of Nicotiana tabacum  cv. Xanthi-nc induced by TMV.'  Nucleic Acids Research 16:9861. online

Berry, J.O., Carr, J.P., and Klessig, D.F. (1988) 'mRNAs encoding ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase remain bound to polysomes but are not translated in amaranth seedlings transferred to darkness.' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  85:4190-4194. online

Carr, J.P., Dixon, D.C., Nikolau, B.J., Voelkerding, K.V., and Klessig, D.F. (1987) 'Synthesis and localization of pathogenesis-related proteins in tobacco.'  Molecular & Cellular Biology 7:1580-1583. online

Berry, J.O., Nikolau, B.J., Carr, J.P., and Klessig, D.F. (1986) 'Translational regulation of light-induced ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase gene expression in amaranth.' Molecular & Cellular Biology 6:2347-2353. online

Berry, J.O., Nikolau, B.J., Carr, J.P., and Klessig, D.F. (1985) 'Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase gene expression in light and dark grown amaranth cotyledons.' Molecular & Cellular Biology 5:2238-2246. online

Carr, J.P., Dixon, D.C., and Klessig, D.F. (1985) 'Synthesis of pathogenesis-related proteins in tobacco is regulated at the level of mRNA accumulation and occurs on membrane-bound polysomes.' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:7999- 8003. online

Antoniw, J.F., White, R.F., and Carr, J.P. (1984) 'An examination of the effect of human α-interferon on the infection and multiplication of tobacco mosaic virus in tobacco.' Phytopathol. Zeit. (J. Phytopathol.) 109:367-371. online

White, R.F., Antoniw, J.F., Carr, J.P., and Woods, R.D. (1983) 'The effects of aspirin and polyacrylic acid on the multiplication and spread of TMV in different cultivars of tobacco with and without the N-gene.' Phytopathol. Zeit. (J. Phytopathol.) 107:224- 232 online

Other publications: 

Reviews & Book Chapters

Murphy, A.M., Zhou, T., & Carr, J.P. (2020). An update on salicylic acid biosynthesis, its induction and potential exploitation by plant viruses. Current Opinion in Virology 42:8-17

Carr, J.P., Tungadi, T., Donnelly, R., Bravo-Cazar, A., Rhee, S.J., Watt, L.G., Mutuku, J.M., Wamonje, F.O., Murphy, A.M., Arinaitwe, W., Pate, A.E., Cunniffe, N.J., and Gilligan, C.A. (2020). Modelling and manipulation of aphid-mediated spread of non-persistently transmitted viruses. Virus Research  277:197845 (LINK) OPEN ACCESS

Carr, J.P. and Murphy, A.M. (2019). Chapter 4. Host Responses – Susceptibility, pp. 47-58 in ‘Cucumber Mosaic Virus’ eds. Palukaitis P. and García-Arenal F. APS Press, St Paul MN. ISBN 978-0-89054-609-3 (link)

Carr, J.P. and Murphy, A.M. (2019). Chapter 12. Suppression of Plant Defense, pp. 133-144 in ‘Cucumber Mosaic Virus’ eds. Palukaitis P. and García-Arenal F. APS Press, St Paul MN. ISBN 978-0-89054-609-3 (link)

Carr, J.P., Murphy, A.M., Tungadi, T., and Yoon, J.Y. (2019). Plant defense signals: Players and pawns in plant-virus-vector interactions. Plant Science 279:87-95   LINK

Carr, J.P., Donnelly, R., Tungadi, T., Murphy, A.M., Jiang, S., Bravo-Cazar, A., Yoon, J.Y., Cunniffe, N.J., Glover, B.J., and Gilligan, C.A. (2018). Viral manipulation of plant stress responses and host interactions with insects. Advances in Virus Research 102:177-197. LINK 

Carr, J.P. (2017) Commentary: Exploring how viruses enhance plants’ resilience to drought and the limits to this form of viral payback. Plant, Cell and Environment  40:2906-2908 LINK

Palukaitis, P., Yoon, J.Y., Choi, S.K. and Carr, J.P. (2017). Manipulation of induced resistance to viruses. Current Opinion in Virology 26: 141-148. LINK

Groen, S.C., Wamonje, F.O., Murphy, A.M. and Carr, J.P. (2017). Engineering resistance to virus transmission. Current Opinion in Virology 26:20–27. LINK

Worrall, E.A., Wamonje, F.O, Mukeshimana, G., Harvey, J.J.W., Carr, J.P., and Mitter, N. (2015). Bean common mosaic virus and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus: Relationships, biology and prospects for control. Advances in Virus Research 93: 1-46. link

Palukaitis, P. Groen, S.C., and Carr, J.P. (2013) The Rumsfeld paradox: Some of the things we know that we don’t know about plant virus infection. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 16:513–519  view online

Westwood, J.H., and Carr, J.P. (2013). The CMV-Arabidopsis interaction: interplay of viral virulence strategies and plant responses. Pp.225-250 In Plant Molecular Immunity  Ed. Sessa, Guido., John Wiley and Sons link

Carr, J.P., Lewsey, M.G., and Palukaitis, P. (2010). Signaling in induced resistance. Advances in Virus Research 76: 57-121. view online

Ziebell, H., and Carr, J.P. (2010). 'Cross-protection: A century of mystery.' Advances in Virus Research 76: 211-264. view online

Lewsey, M.G., González, I., Kalinina, N.O., Palukaitis, P., Canto, T., and Carr, J.P., (2010). Article addendum. 'Symptom induction and RNA silencing suppression by the cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein.' Plant Signaling & Behavior 5: 1-4. view online

Chivasa, S., Tomé, D.F.A., Murphy, A.M., Hamilton, J.M., Lindsey, K., Carr, J.P. and Slabas, A.R. (2009). Article addendum. Extracellular ATP. A modulator of cell death and pathogen defense in plants. Plant Signaling & Behavior 4: 1078 – 1080. view online

Lewsey, M.G. and Carr, J.P. (2009). ‘RNA Viruses: Plant Pathogenic’ Article 00351in Encyclopedia of Microbiology Third Edition, pp 443-458, Section Ed. DC Baulcombe, Editor-in-Chief:  Moselio Schaechter, Elsevier. view online

Palukaitis, P. and Carr, J.P. (2008) Plant resistance responses to viruses. Journal of Plant Pathology 90: 153-172. view online

Lewsey, M., Palukaitis, P. and Carr, J.P. (2008) Plant-virus interactions:  Defence and counter-defence. In Molecular Aspects of Plant Disease Resistance (Ed. Jane Parker).  Annual Plant Reviews Volume 34. pp. 134-176 Blackwell Publishers, Oxford. link

Verchot-Lubicz, J. and Carr, J.P. (2008) Viral suppressors of gene silencing. In Encyclopedia of Virology, Third Edition. Eds. May, B. & van Regenmortel, M. Elsevier. view online

Palukaitis, P., Carr, J.P. and Schoelz, J.E. (2008). Plant-Virus Interactions. Pp3-20 in Plant Virology Protocols Vol. 2 : From viral sequence to protein function, G. Foster, Y. Hong, E. Johansen, P. Nagy (eds.). Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 451, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. link

Gilliland, A., Murphy, A.M. and Carr, J.P. (2006). ‘Induced Resistance Mechanisms.’ In Natural Resistance Mechanisms of Plants to Viruses pp. 125-145 (Eds. G. Loebenstein and J.P. Carr) Springer. preview

Handford, M. G. and Carr, J.P. (2006). ‘Plant metabolism associated with resistance and susceptibility.’ In Natural Resistance Mechanisms of Plants to Viruses pp. 315-340 (Eds. G. Loebenstein and J.P. Carr) Springer. preview

Gilliland, A., Murphy, A.M., Wong, C.E., Carson, R.A.J. and Carr, J.P. (2006). ‘Mechanisms involved in induced resistance to plant viruses’. In Multigenic and Induced Systemic Resistance (Eds. S. Tuzun and E. Bent) pp 335-359 Kluwer Academic Publishers preview

Carr, J.P. (2004). ‘Tobacco mosaic virus.’ In Plant-Pathogen Interactions (Ed. N.J.Talbot).  Annual Plant Reviews Volume 11. pp. 25-67 Blackwell Publishers, Oxford. preview

Singh, D.P. Moore, C.A. Gilliland, A. and Carr, J.P. (2004). ‘Activation of multiple anti-viral defence mechanisms by salicylic acid.’ Molecular Plant Pathology 5: 57-63. view online

Carr, J.P. and Murphy, A.M. (2002) ‘Cadmium blocks virus movement.’ Nature Cell Biology 4:E167-E168. View Online

Murphy, A.M., Gilliland, A., Wong, C.E., West, J., Singh, D.P. and Carr, J.P. (2001) 'Induced resistance to viruses.'  European Journal of Plant Pathology 107: 121-128. view online

Murphy, A.M., Chivasa, S., Singh, D.P. and Carr, J.P. (1999) 'Salicylic acid-induced resistance to viruses and other pathogens: A parting of the ways?'  Trends in Plant Sciences 4: 155-160. view online

Carr, J.P. and Zaitlin, M. (1993) 'Replicase-mediated resistance.' Seminars in Virology 4: 339-347. (Ed. R.N. Beachy). view online

Carr, J.P. and Klessig, D.F. (1989) 'The pathogenesis-related proteins of plants.' In: Genetic Engineering: Principles and Methods Vol. 11 pp. 65-100 (Ed. Setlow, J.K.). Plenum, New York. link


Book Editing

Immunopathology. Advances in Virus Research. Volume 107 Editors John P Carr and Marilyn J Roossinck Elsevier (2020) 416 pp. ISBN: 978-0-12-821588-3   link

Natural and Engineered Resistance to Plant Viruses. Part B. Advances in Virus Research. Volume 76 Editors John P. Carr and Gad Loebenstein. Elsevier  (2010) 269 pp. ISBN: 978-0-12-374525-5 link

Natural and Engineered Resistance to Plant Viruses. Part A. Advances in Virus Research Volume 75 Editors Gad Loebenstein and John P. Carr. Elsevier  (2009) 244 pp. ISBN: 978-0-12-381397-8 link

Natural Resistance Mechanisms of Plants to Viruses.  Edited by G. Loebenstein and J.P. Carr (2006). 552 pages. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN-10 1-4020-3779-1 (HB); ISBN-13 978-1-4020-3779-5 (HB); ISBN-10 1-4020-3780-5 (e-book); ISBN-13 978-1-4020-3780-1 (e-book) link


Editing of Special Journal Issues

MPMI Focus Issue: Cell Biology of Plant-Virus Interactions (November 2010 - Volume 23, Number 11

MPMI Focus Issue: Translational Research



Teaching and Supervisions



Molecular Laboratory Training Workshop - for African scientists with the JR Biotek Foundation

Sixth-Form lab taster days

Research supervision: 

Sites of Lab Alumni: 

Mat Lewsey

Steve Chivasa

Heiko Ziebell

Wing-Sham Lee

Shih-Feng Fu

Mike Handford

Fiona Robertson

Chui Eng Annie Wong

Current and past funding from the UK Biotechnological and Biological Sciences Research Council:

We are also grateful to The Leverhulme Trust, the Royal Society, Gatsby, Defra, the EU Marie Curie Program, Cambridge in Africa, CONNECTED, Cambridge Impact Acceleration and the Cambridge University Newton Trust for support.

Head of Group
Professor John P Carr

Contact Details

Email address: 
Department of Plant Sciences
University of Cambridge
Downing Street
01223 766416
Takes PhD students